Irrigation association coupon code
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McMaster is proud to offer lawn care, irrigation, and pest control services in Florida. Caring for your lawn and keeping it healthy can be a daunting, time-consuming task. Let us take the weight off your shoulders by maintaining your lawn for you! Remove the breeding sites, you remove the problem. Where populations are most vulnerable, irrigation projects need to take this on board and build malaria awareness into the scheme from the start.
But too often, according to Kwadwo Asenso-Okyere, former director of the eastern and southern Africa regional office of the International Food Policy Research Institute and now a consultant to its Ghana programme, rural populations themselves lack understanding of malaria transmission and policymakers also fail to act.
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Irrigation is not the only potential 'bridge' between agriculture and malaria. Mosquitoes are known to feed on maize pollen, and a study reported an association between intensified maize cultivation and higher malaria transmission in an area of Ethiopia, where a high-yielding variety introduced in the mids replaced more traditional crops such as teff, barley and sorghum. Previously a marginal garden crop, maize became intensely cultivated close to homesteads, with correspondingly high levels of pollen.
The new variety also released its pollen a few weeks later in the season, coinciding perfectly with mosquito breeding times. This doesn't mean maize causes malaria, but it shows how certain agroecological changes can accelerate it in perhaps unforeseen ways.
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According to James McCann, professor of history at Boston University and a specialist in the agricultural and ecological history of Africa, who co-authored the research in Ethiopia, this association is now recognised — even if policies haven't responded. Greater policy alignment in achieving health and agricultural objectives is therefore the challenge. One approach is for health impact assessments to be built into irrigation projects, just like environmental impact assessments EIA often are.
This happens, but isn't yet standard practice, particularly for smaller schemes. But most national governments don't have regulations for health impact assessments. In the example of maize, fairly simple changes such as growing other crops near mosquito breeding grounds and maize further away is one way of addressing the problem. Maize can also be de-tasselled by hand to remove the pollen-producing tassels, or maize breeders could potentially select for different pollen shedding patterns in their breeding strategies. Similarly many sections have been amended by reference to the compilation number only.
Some of these sections contain legislative language "this act," "this chapter," or both, which appear in the session law either as original legislative language or reenactments by the legislature of a compiler's translation. Therefore, throughout chapter Situations concerning effective dates of particular acts or having express restrictive application are otherwise specially noted.
Deferral of special assessments: Chapter Disposal of real property on abandonment of irrigation district right-of-way — Right of adjacent owners: RCW Local governmental organizations, actions affecting boundaries, etc. Plats, approval of plat within irrigation districts prohibited without provision for irrigation water: RCW Special purpose districts, expenditures to recruit job candidates: RCW RCW Actions subject to review by boundary review board — Exceptions.
The formation of an irrigation district may be subject to potential review by a boundary review board under chapter The alteration of the boundaries of an irrigation district, including but not limited to a consolidation, addition of lands, exclusion of lands, or merger, may be subject to potential review by a boundary review board under chapter District proposed — Powers, when organized.
Whenever fifty or a majority of the holders of title to, or of evidence of title to land susceptible of "irrigation" desire to organize an irrigation district for any or all of the purposes mentioned in RCW Formerly RCW An irrigation district may be organized or maintained for any or all the following purposes:. Development of hydroelectric generation capabilities — Legislative finding, intent — Limitation.
The legislature finds that a significant potential exists for the development of the hydroelectric generation capabilities of present and future irrigation systems serving irrigation districts.
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The legislature also finds that the development of such hydroelectric generation capabilities is beneficial to the present and future electrical needs of the citizens of the state of Washington, furthers a state purpose and policy, and is in the public interest. The legislature further finds that it is necessary to revise and add to the authority of irrigation districts to obtain the most favorable interest rates possible in the financing of irrigation district projects which serve the agricultural community and hydroelectric facilities.
It is the intent of the legislature to provide irrigation districts with the authority to develop these hydroelectric generation capabilities in connection with irrigation facilities. Nothing herein shall authorize an irrigation district to sell electric power or energy to any municipal corporation not engaged in the distribution of electric power or energy. Effective date — ex. Severability — ex. Any irrigation district, operating and maintaining an irrigation system, in addition to other powers conferred by law, shall have authority:.
No contract entered into under this subsection by the board of directors of any irrigation district for the sale of electrical energy from such hydroelectric facility for a period longer than forty years from the date of commercial operation of such hydroelectric facility shall be binding on the district until ratified by a majority vote of the electors of the district at an election therein, called, held, and canvassed for that purpose in the same manner as that provided by law for district bond elections.
If an irrigation district enters into a contract or agreement under this subsection to create a legal entity or undertaking with an investor-owned utility or a private commercial or industrial entity, that contract or agreement must provide that the irrigation district be severally liable only for its own acts and not jointly or severally liable for the acts, omissions, or obligations of an investor-owned utility or a private commercial or industrial entity.
No money or property supplied by any irrigation district for the planning, financing, acquisition, construction, operation, or maintenance of any common facility may be credited or otherwise applied to the account of any investor-owned utility or private commercial or industrial entity therein, nor may the undivided share of any irrigation district in any common facility be charged, directly or indirectly, with any debt or obligation of any investor-owned utility or private commercial or industrial entity or be subject to any lien as a result thereof.
No action in connection with a common facility may be binding upon any irrigation district unless authorized or approved by resolution of its board. As a part of its acceptance of the conveyance the irrigation district must agree to relieve the water-sewer district of responsibility for maintenance and repair of the system. Any such water-sewer district is authorized to make such a conveyance if all indebtedness of the water-sewer district, except local improvement district bonds, has been paid and the conveyance has been approved by a majority of the water-sewer district's voters voting at a general or special election.
This section shall not be construed as in any manner abridging any other powers of an irrigation district conferred by law.
Part headings not law — c See note following RCW Effective date — Severability — ex. District bond elections: RCW Heating systems authorized: RCW Prerequisite to furnishing water or power outside of district: RCW District may provide street lighting — Limitations. In addition to other powers conferred by law, an irrigation district is authorized to construct, purchase, lease, or otherwise acquire, maintain, and operate a system for lighting public streets and highways and to enter into a contract or contracts with electric utilities, either public or private, to provide that service.
However, no contract entered into by the board for providing street lighting for a period exceeding ten years is binding upon the district unless ratified by a majority vote of the electors of the district at an election called, held, and canvassed for that purpose in the same manner as provided by law for district bond elections. The authority granted by this section applies only to an irrigation district that has begun the construction, purchase, lease, or acquisition of a street lighting system by January 1, , or has entered into a contract for that service by that date.
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District may assist residential owners in financing for conservation of energy — When — Plan — Limitations. Any irrigation district engaged in the distribution of energy is hereby authorized, within limits established by the Constitution of the state of Washington, to assist the owners of residential structures in financing the acquisition and installation of materials and equipment, for compensation or otherwise, for the conservation or more efficient use of energy in such structures pursuant to an energy conservation plan adopted by the irrigation district if the cost per unit of energy saved or produced by the use of such materials and equipment is less than the cost per unit of energy produced by the next least costly new energy resource which the irrigation district could acquire to meet future demand.
Except where otherwise authorized, such assistance shall be limited to:. Such materials and equipment shall be purchased from a private business and shall be installed by a private business or the owner. Loans shall not exceed two hundred forty months in length. Assistance may include, but is not limited to, grants, loans, and financing to purchase, lease, install, and use approved conservation, improvement, and preservation equipment, fixtures, programs, and systems.
The equipment, fixtures, programs, and systems may be leased, purchased, or installed by a private business, the owner of the land, or the irrigation district. The district's board of directors may also levy and fix assessments, rates, tolls, and charges and collect them from all persons for whom, and all land on which, district money or credit is provided, or the board may require landowner repayment for landowner assistance by assessments, charges, rates, or tolls in the same manner as provided by RCW Creation of legal authority to carry out powers — Method — Indebtedness.iqygydeqym.gq
WATER CODE CHAPTER IRRIGATION DISTRICTS
Two or more irrigation districts may create a separate legal authority to carry out any or all of the powers described in RCW To enable such a legal authority to carry out its delegated powers, the irrigation districts creating the authority may assign, convey, or otherwise transfer to it any or all of their respective property, rights, or obligations, including, without limitation, the power to issue revenue obligations and the power of condemnation.
Such a legal authority shall be created and organized by contract in the manner described in chapter A separate legal authority shall only have power to incur indebtedness that is repayable from rates, tolls, charges, or contract payments for services or electricity provided by the authority and to pledge such revenues for the payment and retirement of indebtedness issued for the construction or acquisition of hydroelectric facilities.
An authority shall not have power to levy taxes or to impose assessments for the payment of obligations of the authority. Every bond or other evidence of indebtedness issued by an authority shall provide 1 that repayment shall be limited solely to the revenues of the authority; and 2 that no member of the authority shall be obligated to repay directly or indirectly any obligation of the authority except to the extent of fair value for services actually received from the authority.
No member may pledge its revenues to support the issuance of revenue bonds or other indebtedness of an authority. In addition to the authority provided throughout this title, an irrigation district, reclamation district, and similar districts organized pursuant to the authority of this title may participate in and expend revenue on cooperative watershed management actions, including watershed management partnerships under RCW For the purpose of organizing an irrigation district, a petition, signed by the required number of holders of title or evidence of title to land within the proposed district, shall be presented to the board of county commissioners of the county in which the lands, or the greater portion thereof, are situated, which petition shall contain the following:.
The petition must be accompanied by a good and sufficient bond, to be approved by the board of county commissioners, in double the amount of the probable cost of organizing the district, and conditioned that the bondspersons will pay all of the cost in case such organization shall not be effected. Said petition shall be presented at a regular meeting of the said board, or at any special meeting ordered to consider and act upon said petition, and shall be published once a week, for at least two weeks three issues before the time at which the same is to be presented, in some newspaper of general circulation printed and published in the county where said petition is to be presented, together with a notice signed by the clerk of the board of county commissioners stating the time of the meeting at which the same will be presented.
There shall also be published a notice of the hearing on said petition in a newspaper published at Olympia, Washington, to be designated by the director of ecology from year to year, which said notice shall be published for at least two weeks three issues prior to the date of said meeting and shall contain the name of the county or counties and the number of each township and range in which the lands embraced within the boundaries of the proposed district are situated, also the time, place and purpose for said meeting, which said notice shall be signed by the petitioner whose name first appears upon the said petition.
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If any portion of the lands within said proposed district lie within another county or counties, then the said petition and notice shall be published for the time above provided in one newspaper printed and published in each of said counties. The said notice, together with a map of the district, shall also be served by registered mail at least thirty days before the said hearing upon the state director of ecology at Olympia, Washington, who shall, at the expense of the district in case it is later organized, otherwise at the expense of the petitioners' bondspersons, make such investigation of the sufficiency of the source and supply of water for the purposes of the proposed district, as he or she may deem necessary, and file a report of his or her findings, together with a statement of his or her costs, with the board of county commissioners at or prior to the time set for said hearing.
At said hearing the board shall also give the district a name and shall order that an election be held therein for the purpose of determining whether or not the district shall be organized under the provisions of this act and for the purpose of electing directors.
The clerk of the board of county commissioners shall then give notice of the election ordered to be held as aforesaid, which notice shall describe the district boundaries as established, and shall give the name by which said proposed district has been designated, and shall state the purposes and objects of said election, and shall be published once a week, for at least two weeks three issues prior to said election, in a newspaper of general circulation published in the county where the petition aforesaid was presented; and if any portion of said proposed district lies within another county or counties, then said notice shall be published in like manner in a newspaper within each of said counties.
Said election notice shall also require the electors to cast ballots which shall contain the words "Irrigation District — Yes," and "Irrigation District — No," and also the names of persons to be voted for as directors of the district: PROVIDED, That where in this act publication is required to be made in a newspaper of any county, the same may be made in a newspaper of general circulation in such county, selected by the person or body charged with making the publication and such newspaper shall be the official paper for such purpose. State lands situated in or taken into district — Procedure — Assessments, collection.
Whenever public lands of the state are situated in or taken into an irrigation district they shall be treated the same as other lands, except as hereinafter provided. The commissioner of public lands shall be served with a copy of the petition proposing to include such lands, together with a map of the district and notice of the time and place of hearing thereon, at least thirty days before the hearing, and if he or she determines that such lands will be benefited by being included in the district he or she shall give his or her consent thereto in writing.
If he or she determines that they will not be benefited he or she shall file with the board a statement of his or her objections thereto. Any public lands of the state which are situated within the boundaries of an irrigation district, but which were not included in the district at the time of its organization, may be included after a hearing as herein provided.